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History of Autism

History of Autism

 

Looking for autism history as well as the treatment and preventions that are done in the early 19th century?

Yeah, you came at right place. Before discussing its history let`s have a fast view of Autism. Basically, it is a brain disorder that commenced at a very early stage in infants(child`s) life, but major symptoms come into the picture around the age of 2 or 3.

In the field of autism, huge growth has been observed over the last six decades.  Let’s Now with advancement in technologies we can detect the autism in the 1-year-old child. As soon as a child gets treated, the more superior will be the result. Let`s discuss the history of autism, its treatment options, and diagnosis.

Where did the term “Autism” derive from?

The word “autism” comes from the Greek expression “autos” which means self or oneself. The term describes the condition in which a person makes the castle in the air in an abstract world or cut out from the real world.

Autism first came into sight in 1911 by Eugen Bleure, a Swiss psychiatrist, as he was defining the signs and symptoms of schizophrenic. He began deploying it around 1911 in order to mention to one group of symptoms related to schizophrenia. Here’s a glance at the history of autism spectrum disorder.

The word autism first took the trendy sense in 1938 when Bleuler’s terminology autistic psychopaths was acquired by Hans Asperger of the Vienna University Hospital at the time of delivering the lecture about child psychology in German.

When was autism first diagnosed?

The researcher Hans Asperger in 1938 and then Leo Kanner in 1943 described 11 children who were affected by the autism. The research was very useful for the next three decades physicians. Both of them are working individually in the 1940s.

Donald Triplett was the very first child who was affected and diagnosed with autism by Mr. Kanner. According to Triplett father, the child was not interested in social interaction but was more involved with the patterns, music notes, numbers & alphabets along with U.S. president pictures.

Origin and diagnosis of autism

According to Martin Luther, A 12-year-old boy was affected by autism. Luther thought this boy was possessed by a devil. The earliest case of autism is of Hugh Blair of Borgue in 1747 which is registered as a court case in which his brother request to annul Blair’s marriage to get Blair’s inheritance. In 1798, A feral child has some signs of autism who is treated by a medical student Jean Itard with a behavioral program.

In the 1940s, researchers within the United States began to use “autism” to explain kids with emotional or social issues. A doctor from Johns Hopkins University, Leo Kanner used it to elucidate the behavior of many kids he studied United Nations agency acted withdrawn. Simultaneously, Hans Asperger discovered Asperger’s syndrome.

Donald Gray Triplett, born in 1933 in a rural town known as Forest, Mississippi. He is the one whom psychiatrist Dr. Leo Kanner in 1938 has first at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Dr. Kanner was puzzled after seeing his symptom and was initially unable to diagnose him. However, in Dr. Kanner’s 1943 paper, “Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact,” Donald Triplett was registered as Case 1, Donald T.

Analysis Period

In the decade of 1960-70, scientist analyzes the medications like the hallucinogenic drug, electrical shock, and activity amendment techniques. The latter relied on pain and social control. During the 1980s, the role of behavioral medical care and also the use of extremely controlled learning environments took out as basic treatments for different forms of autism and it’s related conditions.

Some key events in the Autism history by the Autism Timeline.

1887: Dr. John Langdon Down first researched the mental retardation and Down’s syndrome. In mental retardation, he describes people who are suffering from autism.

1908: Autism was described as the people who are self-isolated and withdrawn from self-called schizophrenic patients.

1911: Eugen Bleuler describes the symptom of schizophrenia by using word autism.

1920: In the history of autism first-time electroconvulsive theory used to treat symptoms of autism.

1920: Dietary restrictions have been implemented for autism treatment.

1927: A student of Bleuler Eugene Minkowski describes autism as trouble generator of schizophrenia.

1943: A doctor Leo Kanner in the United States noticed 11 children who already have mental retardation had difficulty in speech or having speech disorder and can’t interact socially with others. They have social and emotional limitations with them. Kanner named this condition to Kanner’s syndrome and Asperger named it Asperger’s syndrome.

1944: A German scientist Hans Asperger describes Asperger’s Syndrome by an experiment in which a group of children was found very intelligent with an average understanding of technical knowledge. But they can’t socially interact with others. Both of researchers symptoms are similar but not identical.

Where the theory of Refrigerator mother started…

1950: In his next study, Leo Kanner’s made a false statement that most children have autism from their parents or most children born with autism due to their families. This theory is called a refrigerator mother.

1965: At the age of 18, Temple Grandin created a squeeze machine( hug box) for children who are affected with autism

1967: Psychologist Bruno Bettelheim describes that autism occurs in children due to psychological harm inherited by their mothers and also not loving their children with autism. It was an emotional disease. Father of a son with autism, Bernard Rimland claimed that autism is a biological condition it is not inherited by their parents. He raised his voice against Refrigerator Mother Theory.

1970:  The autism treatment approach in the 1970s was shock therapy and cruel punishment.

1971: Researcher Eric Schopler and Robert Reichler defined the impact of involving parents in the treatment of children who have autism.

1972: Schopler has opened Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children for providing the training to the children who have autism.

1977: After Research on twins, shows that autism in twins is caused by inheritance and biological disorder in brain development.

Where the DSM came forward!

1980: In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-lll, Infantile autism is first added to accurately diagnose autism and easily separate autism from schizophrenia.

1987: Ivar Lovaas describes how intensive behavior therapy can help children who have autism. DSM replaces infantile autism which gives an expansive explanation and checklist of diagnostic criteria of autism.

1988: In the movie Rain Man, Dustin Hoffman, who played as an autistic person, has a photographic memory and can also calculate large numbers in his mind.

1991: Federal government decides to make autism a special education category in which Schools begin to identify and serve special services.

1994: Asperger’s Syndrome is listed in the DSM – Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) in which more mid cases included by the expansion of the autism spectrum.

1997: Special education programs are organized for children with autism.

1998: The Lancet says that the autism also causes by measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine.

2000: Thimerosal removed from all routinely given childhood vaccines by Vaccine manufacturers because of its role in autism.

2009: In 2007 1 in 150 children have autism but according to U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1 in 110 children have autism. CDC identified that decrement in autism occurring ratio due to improved screening and diagnostic techniques.

2013: Diagnosis called an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) classified in DSM-V and Asperger syndrome not considered as sub-diagnosis.  There is two new category of diagnosis:

  1. The first is based on new areas of social communication/interaction.
  2. And the second is based on the restricted and repetitive behavior.

Autism-related awareness through Entertainment media.

As the Autism came up to the people with mystery and misconception. The writers and producers of the entertainment media start researching and they had found autism as a topic to be told to people. There are some of the names of films which featured autism in the most beautiful and understanding manner so, the audience could except autism in their real life. And some of these films are,

  • 1986- The Boy Who Could Fly
  • 1988- Rainman
  • 1993- What’s Eating Gilbert Grape?
  • 2009- Adam
  • 2010 – My Name is Khan
  • 2010- Temple Grandin

 

Autism Spectrum Disorders Defined

An autism spectrum disorder is a disorder related to brain development in which numerous range of disorders occurs. It impacts on social interaction and communicating ability of people with autism. It includes various repetition of behavior and activities.

Early Treatment Approaches

Electroconvulsive Therapy

ECT methods improve schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In this therapy electric signal is sent to the brain to trigger a seizure. This seizure changes brain chemistry to reduce mental illness like severe agitation and self-destructive behaviors.

Diet plan

In 1920, people think that autism is caused by toxic diets and can be treated by changing the diet plan of the children. Some parents, researchers, physicians are still using restricted diets to treat autism but it is not recommended by most of the autism researchers and physician groups.

Evolution in the Treatments of Autism

  • Parentectomy (the 1950’s)
  • Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (1960-1965)
  • Aversive Punishment (1976)
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy (the 1930’s- Present)
  • Biochemical – diet (1920’s -Present)
  • Neurosensory – auditory therapy (the 1980’s)
  • Psycho-dynamic – holding therapy
  • Behavioral – Applied Behavior Analysis (the 1960’s- Present)

What were the people with Autism called before the name came along?

Before 20th-century autism was a subset of childhood schizophrenia which officially changed in 1980. American Diagnostic and Statistical Manual first time recognized childhood autism as a different condition. After 1930 autism is referred to as Asperger’s syndrome which has various symptoms or co-morbid conditions, like anxious, depression, introverted, neurotic and many more.

 

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