Traditionally, components of linguistics analyze human language by observing an interplay between meaning and sound. Therefore, It is nothing but the study of speech and non-speech sounds.
In this, different types of sound brought together, they change their forms and do interesting things. It arranges words in a different order, Sometimes few starting and ending words are changed to adjust the meaning.
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Introduction to Linguistics/ Language
Linguistics is the study of a language system or its components. And for a study purpose language is divided into different major components. The components of linguistics are conventional. Thus they are reliable to use.
Because it also involves the analysis of language from language meaning. In this study of language, various building blocks of different types and sizes are combined to make up a language structure. That is used to form thoughts into words.
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The study of language also deals with how languages encode their relations between entities, properties, and other aspects of the world to convey, process, and assign meaning, moreover manage and resolve the ambiguity. So that a clear message may deliver in the form of language.
While the study of semantics concerns itself with truth conditions to judge words, pragmatics deals with how situational context influences the meaning of production.
It traditionally analyzes human language by observing the interplay between sounds and also their meanings. There are various components of linguistics that are important to observe and build a better language.
Five Basic Components of linguistics/ Language
There are mainly five basic components of any language. They are denoted as phonemes, morphemes, lexemes, syntax, as well as context. Along with grammar, semantics, and pragmatics, these components work with each other in order to give meaningful communication among individuals and include various linguistic elements.
On the basis of the structure of language, all components/ parts/ elements or levels of linguistics are categorized into a number of subfields.
These are the given principal components that linguistics deals with :
It is the first component of linguistics and formed from Greek word phone. Phonology is a study of the structure or cognitive aspects of speech in language on the basis of speech units and also on pronunciation. This helps to understand the systems of sounds that any linguistic deals with.
It is a study of speeches of sounds on the basis of their physical aspects. also, phonetics helps to define the classification of speech sounds. Basically in this study, we can measure the patterns of sounds on the instruments. Thus it gives a better understanding of sounds.
Many people get confused between grammar and syntax. The syntax is a study of arrangement and order of words. And it also has a relationship between these hierarchical units. This helps to construct a well-formed sentence in any language.
The semantics is a study of the meaning conveyed in the words. Semantics has a number of branches and subbranches. Which includes the formal semantics. This is to study the logical aspects of meaning. Such as implication, sense, reference, and logical form. lexical semantics studies word meanings and relations. Conceptual semantics studies the cognitive structure of meaning.
Pragmatics is the branch of linguistics and it is the study of the functions in a language. It deals with language in use and the contexts in which it is used. Pragmatics is including all matters such as deixis, text organization, taking turns in conversation, presupposition, and implicature.
The next component of linguistics is morphology. It is a study of structure or form of words in a specific language. And morphology is also used for their classification purpose. Therefore, it considers the principle of the formation of words in a language.
Aside from language structure, there are a lot of perspectives on the language are represented in specialized or interdisciplinary branches.
Branches/ Parts of linguistics Elements
- Historical linguistics: This Historical linguistics is considered for the study of language that is changing over time.
- Sociolinguistics: The Sociolinguistics is used for the study of any language. According to the caste, gender, religion as well as the occupation of people in a society.
- Dialectology: A Dialectology is known as the study of a language according to the geographical distribution of a place.
- Pragmatics: The Pragmatics is the study of a wherewith context, that provides the meaning of any language.
- Discourse analysis: The study of using the language is called Discourse analysis. It clears the methods that how to use a language.
- Computational linguistics: This branch of linguistics is used for computational programs, according to the model aspects of language.
- Language acquisition: The study of acquiring and learning of language is known as language acquisition.
- Psycholinguistics: The study of behavior that how people treat a language comes under psycholinguistics.
- Experimental Linguistics: The study of methods of linguistic description (phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics) based on evidence.
- Neurolinguistics: The neurolinguistics is the study of whereby language affects the brain structure. Or how the brain behaves according to the language/ linguistics.
- Lexicography: The compilation as well as the study of dictionaries with context, history, grammar, and pronunciation in memory
- Forensic Linguistics: The study of language as well as the law studies under the forensic linguistics branch.
- Corpus linguistics: The study of language with a collection of naturally occurring texts.
General principles of linguistics
The principle of Naturalness
Teaching must be done in a natural way. Our teaching must include only one or two basic skills .i.e. Listening and speaking. Further, there are two more skills, reading, and writing that comes automatically. Speaking will lead you to write, listening and reading. As the child gradually learns his mother tongue in the natural environment.
The principle of vocabulary
The main objective of teaching is to increase the vocabulary of the students. Vocabulary is mainly categorized into two parts, passive and active. The words which can be recognized and understood but not use in writing as well as spoken come in passive vocabulary. On the other side, the words which are easy to understand are considered as speaking and writing comes under active vocabulary.
The principle of Imitation
You can learn the language best by imitation because a good speech is the result of imitation of good models of speech. A teacher uses Audio- Video Aids for providing a good model of reading, writing, pronunciation, etc.
The principle of Habit formation
As every habit needs practice e.g. Habits like singing and dancing needs practice. Likewise, languages also need practice. The habits lie in one’s personality deeply and reflect through speech behavior and thinking.
The principle of Practice
For bringing perfection in your language, practice is very important. The development of expression, International Journal of Technical Research (IJTR) grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation is based on the practice which should be continuous.
Grammar is the one that needs a lot of practice for knowing its rules deeply and in direct proportion. Fries recommended that eighty-four percent of the time be devoted to practice and only fifteen percent to explanation and commentary.
The principle of contest and situation
Language is being taught to able the learners to make use of the words in their day-to-day life and its situations. You can make your learning easy if it is made up of real as well as suitable situations. The fundamental language which includes vocabulary, structure, and grammar should be taught by taking the help of structures and vocabulary that relates to real situations. You can create these situations by real objects, pictures, gestures, animations, etc.
The principle of mutuality
Language is fruitful if there is a mutual bond b/w teachers and learners. Both are essential in the teaching-learning process. The students must be co-operative to accept the matter wholeheartedly while learning the language. He should be ready for practicing and learning the foreign language as the teacher should be ready for providing the new language.
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