Fascinating Facts About Five Sense Organs of Human Body

The Living creature is an amazing miracle of God’s creation. From the very beginning, God created the earth. Subsequently, he created the LIFE” or “HUMAN which became the most powerful creatures on the earth due to his wondrous power of SENSATION.

Normally, a sense is a physiological capacity or conscious awareness of organisms that supply information for perception. Apparently, the senses allow us to experience the world around us. It might be unimaginable to live our lives without our five sense organs.

The nervous system of our body receive and process the information and later, relay the signals to the brain in order to react with the world. Much of this information reaches us through the sensory organs. Those are the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin. However, Sight (vision) must be the most delightful of all the senses. But touch (skin) comes before sight, or even before speech. It is the first expression and the last, and it always mentions the truth.

To illustrate the above, human bodies have five recognized senses: sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch. Here is a brief description of each of our five senses.

Eyes the sense of SIGHT

  • An eye is an organ responsible for Vision to detects visible images and most usable more than any other sense.
  • It translates light into image signals for the brain through the various parts like sclera, the cornea, anterior & posterior chambers, iris/pupil, lens, vitreous humor, retina, fovea, macula, and the ophthalmoscope.
  • The cones and the rods are the two types of light-sensitive cells in the retina. When the cones distinguish colors, the rods allow us to see better in dim light. And, by the optic nerve, all of this information is sent to the brain.
  • The images actually sent are upside down but our brain help to understand what it is by turning the image on the right side up.
  • The inability to see is blindness, results from any damage to any part of the eyes. Cleaning of the eyes, eye drops, surgery, and laser treatments available to cure severe vision impairment.

The HEARING, a sensation of sound

  • The sense of sound perception is hearing. Our ears help us to hear. It is divided into 3 parts i.e. the outer ear, middle ear, and the inner ear.
  • The ear uses bones, hairs, and fluid to convert sound waves into sound signals.
  • The hearing is the mechanical motion of the vibrations detected in the inner ear through a series of tiny bones to tiny hairs.
  • Hearing impairment or deafness is the inability of hearing. Few medications, therapies, and surgeries are recommended to cure hearing. While, in some cases, hearing aid also helpful for severe deafness to some extent.
  • Some impaired people are able to determine the direction and location of vibrations picked up through the feet.

The TASTE sensation (home of the taste buds)

  • It refers the thought of flavor felt in the mouth and throat in touch with any substances such as food, certain minerals, chemicals, and toxin, etc. Remember it is fully different from the sense of smell.
  • The Tastebuds, sensory organs on the top of the tongue or mouth connected to nerves in the brain. When food touches the taste buds, it activates nervous receptors which later send signals to facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves.
  • Those nerves carry the signals to the medulla oblongata, which deliver them to the cerebral cortex of the brain.
  • There are five basic tastes: saltiness, sourness, sweetness, bitterness, and umami.
  • In addition, a taste sense depends on other senses and factors, including smell, texture, and temperature.
  • The incapability to taste is called ageusia. Certain medications may help to treat ageusia e.g. Topical antifungal or antibiotics: candidiasis/oral infections.

The process of SMELL sensation

  • Our nose, containing the nostrils used for breathing and smelling. Without it, we couldn’t able to enjoy our favorite smells like a fragrance of cooking, a bouquet of flowers, and perfumes etc.
  • Olfaction, a sense of smell, have minimum 390 olfactory receptors at the top of the nasal cavity.
  • When inhaled, those triggers a signal that travels to the olfactory bulbs through the epithelium.
  • The olfactory bulbs contain neuron cell bodies, they send the signal along the cranial nerves towards the cerebral cortex in the brain.
  • Our sense of smell is able to determine seven types of sensations. Those are camphor, ether, musk, flower, mint, acrid, or putrid.
  • Anosmia is the loss of the sense of smell. Intranasal theophylline spray and smell therapies help in improving the sense of smell.

How brain perceive TOUCH sensation

  • Although the skin is the largest organ in our body, touch is perhaps the most unnoticed sense of the body. Nerve endings and specialized neural receptors in the skin (including hair follicles, tongue, throat, and mucosa) send touch signals to the brain.
  • Blind people can use their sense of touch to read Braille which is a type of reading or writing.
  • Generally, touch sensation first develops in the 8 weeks of the gestation period.
  • The skin consists of three major tissue layers: the outer epidermis, middle dermis, and inner hypodermis. Specialized receptor cells within these layers detect tactile sensations and send those signals through peripheral nerves towards the brain.
  • Receptors, for example, Merkel cells, are forms in the lower epidermis of lips, hands, and external genitalia. Similarly, Meissner corpuscles are found in the upper dermis of hairless skin such as fingertips, nipples, the soles of the feet. All of these receptors detect touch, pressure, and vibration.
  • Tactile anesthesia is the loss of the ability to feel anything touched. Paresthesia is a sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of the skin that occurs due to nerve damage.

Apart from these, other senses like balance and acceleration, thermoception, proprioception, pain, sexual stimulation, and other internal senses are normally stimulated within the body that leads to enhancing the human’s life.

In conclusion, all of the nerves in our body connect to the spinal cord (over our backbone), which attach to the brain. Hence, this very complex system is what allows us to sense things.

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