Apraxia is a Greek word which means without action. Apraxia is a neurological disorder known by a loss of the ability to perform or carry out skilled movements and gestures. It is a disorder caused by damage to the brain (specifically the posterior parietal cortex). The individual face difficulty with the motor planning to perform tasks or movements when asked, provided that the request or command is understood and the individual is willing to perform the task.
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Apraxia is of different types. Let’s have a look at them in detail
Types of apraxia
Apraxia is of different types – Ideomotor, ideational, orofacial, constructional, gait, limb kinetic, oculomotor and apraxia of speech.
In this apraxia, the patient knows what to do but not how to do it. Disturbance of timing, sequencing and spatial organization of gestural movement is a characteristic of ideomotor apraxia. When a patient asked for verbally to perform a gesture then ideomotor apraxia is demonstrated. Patients with ideomotor apraxia show temporal and spatial errors affecting timing, sequencing, amplitude, configuration, and limb position in space
For example, they may not be able to pick up a phone when asked to do so but can perform the action without thinking when the phone rings.
Ideational and conceptual apraxia
In ideational apraxia, Patient does not know what to do. That terminology can be confusing not only because definitions of ideational and conceptual apraxia vary among authors. The ideational apraxia shows the inability to draw or construct simple configurations, such as intersecting shapes.
For example, the patient may complete actions in incorrect orders, such as buttering the bread before putting it in the toaster or putting on shoes before putting on socks. There is also a loss of ability to voluntarily perform a learned task when given the necessary objects or tools.
Limb apraxia is a common disease of skilled purposive action. The person knows what he wants to say, but his brain has trouble planning voluntary movements of the lips, tongue, and other speech muscles in order to produce sounds or words.
Apraxia of Speech
It is a motor speech disorder causes difficulty speaking, not due to muscle weakness, but due to a breakdown in the brain’s coordination of muscle movements. There are two types of apraxia of speech-
- Acquired Apraxia of Speech
- Childhood Apraxia of Speech
In giant apraxia, the person loses the ability of normal functioning of his lower limbs. this does not happen because of losing a motor or sensory function.
In this, the person losses his voluntary movements of extremities. Because of this one has the difficulty in waving hello.
Faces difficulty in moving the eye, mostly with saccade movements that gazing the target directly.
Signs of Apraxia
- Vowel errors or substitutions
- Vowel errors or substitutions
- Voicing errors
- Errors vary with the complexity of articulatory adjustment
- Groping or struggling to get a word out
- Slow rate Prosodic disturbances